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CASADIAtH FIRST STANDARD 
TEACHER TRAINING 
COURSE. NO. t 



©fin Wmtmmti 



■ 'By ■■'■ 

Rev. Prof. J. ¥. McLaughlin, 

M.A„aD^ 






WILLIAM BRIGGS 

TORONTO 



3 



• 'ill 

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Cowrlthl. CaiuuU, 1909 

by 

Wiltlun HsnilKni 



'■^■^;f> 



CANADIAN FIRST STANDARD 

TEACHER TRAINING 

COURSR, NO. I. 



The Old Testament 





By 

Rev. Prof. J. F. McLaug) i, 
M.A., B.D. 




CONTENTS 

LKSSON 

Map 


PAC 

2 


1 


. Introduction - - . . 


3 


II. 
III. 
IV. 


B.0OKS OF THE OLD TKSTAIHENT - 

The Old Tf^tament World - 
Palestine 


6 

9 
11 


V. 


History : Earliest Times and Age 
of Abraham .... 


■4 


VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 


Age of Moses and the Conquest 
Age of David and Solomon 
The Assyrian Age 


17 

22 


IX. 
X. 


The Babylonian and Persian 
Aces 

Institutions 


26 

30 




WILLIAM BR IOCS 
Toronio 


, 




THE OLD TESTAMENT WOULD. 



880197 



THE OLD TESTAMENT 



LESSON I. 

INTBODUCnON. 

1^20 > 1^,? S?' °?'^.*° °''"™ (P»- 19: R<»n^l: 

5it?; ;•.,'" ^""^ measure the light of this 

9), but In a peculiar and an especial minner 
Ood revealed His nature and His will to the 

fl±"J^^°^K "«1 through them to the world 
(Isa. 49: 6; John 4: 22) The Hlhio i. til^ 
"'•ft"™.?' this peopllrke r'^rd^oTtW.*^ 
Ibldl«i°" "'"■'' °' ^^ "^^"^ Uveth aSd 

The Bible— The Bible Is not one book hnt 
^"Z ;?.^ Sii^r '" " ^"'^ty of mera^ fom' 
There are books of history, of blograohy of 

^JSnT-r",?' ""■"P"""''' 'P'^t'"" or lftte™,Vd 
Sl^" ^h-e-^tee J^b^ra"ry^S.d*^T» 
Scriptures." By the ear™^ree"ihSrtlaiS 1? 
was often called ta Biblii, "the Book?" ms 

^TL°JV •"'" i-""" '^ *""'» and was treated 
as a singular, and so, from the Latin usage, we 
get our word Bible. "=»bp, we 

HU*',L!;?J*^*"~f ^^v'' Krao'ous revelation to 
u ^f^'^'*' tbfough chosen and Inspired men, 
i,° «°J?'^~°'*^ '" the Bible as a "Covenant" 
?K. ?l°^^* ^""^""^ot." See, for example. Gen. 
919.1 ir^v" J' ^^'^ 24- 7; Ps. 89: 3; Jer. 31- 
viitiii J'W *""• ''•''^ covenant relation In- 
ISn !?; ^"'* P*"^ °' I^ae'- obedience to the 
Tni .„ HJ^'M wealed to them In their laws, 
^.. „ i** *^^-^'°* *" their prophets, and, on 
Oods part, fulfllment to them of His promise 
and purpose of salvation. The whole history 
md literature of Israel have to do with this 

!e?2mf.K^.J* ^'fV.'""'".P "' ^"«' to7ehovSi' 
iJ^^ 8 prediction of a new covenant, written 
upon the hearts of men. Is declared (Heb. 8: 



4 OLD TESTAMENT. 

8-13) to be fulfilled in Christ, who is "the 
Mediator of a new covenant" based not upon 
obedience to the law, but upon living faith la 
Him. 

The Testaments. — Now the word " covenant ' 
Is commonly rendered in the Latin Bible " testa- 
mentum" and In the English Bible "testa- 
ment." Hence the books which contain the 
earlier records, before the coming of Christ, 
have come to be known as the "books of the 
Old Covenant" or "Old Testament" (2 Cor. 3: 
14). Those which contain the story of the life 
of Jesus, the founding of the Christian Church, 
and the apostolic teaching, are, similarly, the 
" books of the New Covenant " or " New Testa- 
ment." 

Number of the Books. — There are sixty-six 
books In the Bible— thirty-nine In the Old 
Testament and twenty-seven in the New. It has 
been pointed out, as a help to the memory, 
that the words " Old " and " New " have each 
three letters, and the word " Testament " nine; 
and that 39 is the number of books in the one, 
and 3 x 9=27 is the number of books in the 
other. 

Lanjuiages.— The books of the Old Testament 
were originally written in the Hebrew language, 
with the exception of portions of Daniel and 
Ezra, which are in Aramaic. The new Testa- 
ment was written in Greek, but some portions 
of the Gospel narrative may have been first In 
Aramaic. The Aramaic, which is very much 
like the Hebrew, had replaced the latter as the 
speech of Palestine before the time of Christ, 
and was the language used by our Lord and 
His disciples. Greek was widely used by the 
educated and commercial classes throughout the 
world in New Testament times. 

Time of Writing. — Some of the oldest por- 
tions of the Bible are declared to. have been 
written by Moses (Ex. 17: 14; 24: 4; Num. 33: 
2), tv/elve hundred years or more before Christ. 
The latest portions of the Old Testament prob- 
ably belong to the time of the Maccabees, in 
the second century, B.C., and we have good 
evidence that the Old Testament books were all 



INTBODUCTION K 

meant the "^ule- of'^^aw of Talth ^n?"°"; '" 
Of moral and religious duty "^ ""^ ™°'"""' 

oSrt^cenfirf fn ■ /° ""* '"*«>■ P"* "' "Te 

Questions. 

"TestTmen't"°rH^''/^ ^''''''^ " ^'ble " and 
meaning' • """^ ""** *«« ">«"• original 

found'^ln'Jth/Blgre^ '°™^ "' "'«-">- -« 

3. How niany books are therp In tho «i^ 

Tesumentr In what lang^'a^g^s 'le^\^lt 

*■ What Is meant by the " Canon "' 
the B^b"??? "'"^ ''^*""'" *"* ='"='«■« versions of 



OLD TEBTAUENT. 



LESSON II. 



THE BOOKS OF THE OLD TE8TAJIENT. 

Names and Order of the Books-— The thirty- 
nine books Of the Old Testament are arranged 
In the English Bible, as In the Latin and Greek 
versions, according to their literary form. The 
historical books come first, then the poetical, 
and lastly, the prophetical. 

1. Biatorical Books. Genesis, Exodus, Levi- 
ticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, 
Ruth, Ist and 2nd Samuel, let and 2nd Kings, 
1st and 2nd Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther. 
17 books. 

2. Poetical Books. Job, Psalms, Proverbs, 
Eccleslastes, The Song of Solomon. 5 books. 

3. Prophetical Books. Isaiah, Jeremiah, 
Lamentations, Ezeklel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, 
Amos, Obadlah, Jonah, Micab, Nahum, Habak- 
kuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zecharlah, Malachi. 
17 books. 

I. The Historical Books.— The historical 
books are arranged In two series which are, in 
part, parallel. The first series includes all the 
books from Genesis to Kings. Beginning with 
the creation of the world, it carries the history 
down to the Babylonian rrile, in the early part 
of the sixth century B.C. The second series 
includes Cbronlclesi to Esther. Beginning with 
Adam, it gives brief genealogical records of the 
early ages, and then, more particularly, the his- 
tory of Judah from David to Nehemiah, that Is, 
CO the latter part of the fifth century B.C. 

The Pentateuch. — ^The first five boolcs are 
commonly known as the Pentateuch (that is, the 
five volumes). By the Jews these books were 
regarded with peculiar reverence, as containing 
their ancient laws. They called them "Torah," 
that Is, " Law." Beginning with the creation 
of the world, and the early history of the human 
race, they next tell the story o' the ancestors of 
the Hebrew people, of the Ep ptlan bondage and 
deliverance under Moses, of the long sojourn 
In the wilderness and the conquest of Eastern 
Palestine. 

Joshua to Esther. — The book of Joshua com- 



THE BOOKS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT. 7 

pletes the story of the conquest and settlement 
m Palestine. In Judges and Ruth we have 
narratives of the earliest period of Israel In 
Palestine. The Bools of Samuel tell of the 
establlshmtnt of the monarchy, and the reigns 
of Saul and David. The books of Kings find 
Chronicles contain the history of the kingdoms 
of Israel and Judah to the Babylonian exile. 
Ezra, Wehemlah and Esther are narratives of 
the sixth and fifth centuries, B.C., of the period 
following the return from exile. 

Characteristics of the History.— The history 
is everywhere permeated with religious feeling 
The unique character and dignity of Israel's 
God, His sovereign care for and leading of His 
people, and the divinely-ordered discipline 
through which they are made to pass, are fully 
set forth. It is both a history and an interpre- 
tation of the ways of God. (Deut. chs. 1-3; Jud 
chs. 1-2; 2 Kings, ch. 17). 

a. The Poetical Boolts.— The form of Hebrew 
poetry cannot very well be reproduced in our 
English translation. An attempt is made in the 
Revised Version to show the lines and stanzas 
of the original. The poetry is very largely 
lyrical and all of a religious character. 

The book of Job ranks with the greatest pro- 
ductions of human genius. It is dramatic in 
form and presents the problem of divine pro- 
vidence in its relation to human suffering. The 
author and date are unknown. The Psalms are 
arranged in five books. They were collected, 
and, no doubt, many of them composed, for use 
in the services of the temple and synagogue 
They are appropriately named in Hebrew, 
Praises," and are songs of praise and prayer,, 
pious meditations and reflections upon the deal- 
ings of God with His people. The 'nscriptlons 
at the beginning of many psalms are very 
ancient, but many of them are not now under- 
stood. Seventy-three of the psalms are ascribed 
to David as their author, twenty-eight to others 
and the rest are anonymous. In the Psalms 
we have the world's greatest and most helpful 
book of devotion. The Book of Proverbs is a 
collection of didactic poetry, part of which is 



8 



OLD TESTAMENT. 



ascribed to Solomon, the wise king of Israel 
Eccleslastes may be described as a prose poem 
reflecting upon the vanity of human alms and 
ambitions, and the supreme Importance of reli- 
gion. The Song of Solomon is a dramatic 
1 epresentatlon of faithful love. 

3- The Prophetical Books.— The great religi- 
ous teachers of Israel were the prophets. The 
earlier prophets, such as Samuel, Nathan, 
Elijah and Elisha, are known to us only from 
the books of history. But from the eighth cen- 
tury to the fifth many of the great proohets 
committed their work to writing an1 have given 
us a literature of priceless Importance. To the 
eighth century, the period of Assyrian power 
belong Amos, Hosea, Isaiah and Mlcah. To 
the latter part of the seventh, and beginning of 
the sixth centuries, the Babylonian period, be- 
long Jeremiah, Nahum, Zephanlah, Habakkuk 
Obadlah, and Ezeklel. To the Persian period 
the latter part of the sixth and the fifth cen- 
turies, belong Haggai, Zechariah and Malachl. 
The date of Joel and Jonah Is uncertain, but the 
prophet Jonah is mentioned In 2 Kings 14: 25 
as living in the eighth century. The book" of 
Daniel contains the story of Daniel in Babylon 
and a prophecy whicli has particular reference 
to the suffering of the Jews In the persecutions 
of the second century. The books of Isaiah to 
Daniel are sometimes called the " Major 
Prophets'" and the remaining twelve the 
" Minor Prophets " because they are shorter. 

QUESTIO.NB. 

1. Name the books of the Old Testament in 
their order. 

2. What two series of historical books are 
found in the old Testament, and what periods 
of history are covered by each? 

3. What name la given to the Pentateuch by 
the Jews, and why? 

4. Describe the structure and general char- 
acter of the Book of Psalms? 

5. Who were the prophets of the Assyrian 
period? In what century did tb >y live? 

6. Name the prophets of the Babylonian and 
Persian periods? 



THB OLD TESTAMENT WORLD. 



LESSON III. 

THE OLD TESTAMENT WOHI-D. 

„i.^?'?,VrI''* *'"''^' a» hnown to the writers 

« e worw of^fo^^/"'' ""^ '"""'' ™»''e^ than' 
iiie worm of to^lay, or even of New Testampnt 
Umes It extended from Egypt In the we^t to 
hf''t'he°"nSr?S''trTh^" '" t'^^''- f™^ A^enfa 

^f ^..r^^u-n^i^ld^m^f^r^acKr B^utllfe 
Inter.or and south of Arabia was practlcallv 

„f nM t"'."'" ""'* ^'">^''- "n" the gr™vent8 

wh?cS nil" a?!*!".*"? T""-"" >° thoseTands 
L«t ni.f? semi-Circle about northern Arabia. 
l».I °?k''' "."'' "*'*• Ee;'Pt and Babylonia 
r. ^Ju"** *"•*« °' »•>« earth" (Isa. 41- 9- 43- 
6). There was some vague knowledge of far- 
tCrlT^^ '^'^"O^"' ">e sea. "sons of Javan." 
(Greeks) anu fierce people of "the north 
parts" (Gen 10: 2-5; Isa. 49: 1; 60: 9! Bzek 
fL i'i"' 'u"*^* a'f^^'ed scarcely at all the 
life and thought of the Hebrews 

was then, as now, a vast, arid wilderness, with 
scanty pastures and occasional fertile sDOts 
capable of sustaining a sparse population of 
shepherds and herdmen. Ba!.8,Io„ia.-To the 
north and east lay the river valleys of thi 
Euphra es and Tigris. Prom the place wherl 
these rivers draw near together, about four 
hundred miles above their outlet, there extends 
southward to the Persian Gulf k vast Ifluvlal 
plain one hundred to two hundred ml eam 
bl^t p'k ' ^-Babylonia, or Chaldea, though" 
by the Hebrews to be the earliest home of the 
human race (Gen. 2: 8-15). 4..,s,rio.-Farther 
f„n?» 7n^ "^-f/".^^ originally settled from Baby- 
of thJ??^H,^"' 10-12) about the upper waters 
of the Tigris. Mesopotamia.— West of Assyria 
was the great Mesopotamlan plain, between the 
ruSZ T^ll^ r^ Euphrates rivers, gr^ually 
1 °f *^ *?.! Armenian mountains, a land of 

thP niM?"?*!'- ?"" «^'e»dlng southward, was 
the Plain of Syria, or more properly Aram 
watered by a few streams from the wfstS 



10 



OLD TB8TA1IXXT. 



mountains, and with Rome fertile soil. The 
Lebanont.— Between Syria and the sea lie the 
Lebanon Mountains, forming a double range, 
betweeh whicli is the vailey of Lebanon. The 
high peak which terminates the eastern range 
to the south was called Hermon, and holds the 
sources of the Jordan river. It rises to a 
height of more than 9,000 feet above the sea. 
The scenery of the mountain region Is most 
beautiful and varied, and both Le! inon and 
Hermon are frequently mentioned In the Bible. 
Pftanicja.— Between the uountains and the sea 
was a narrow strip of land, fertile and highly 
cultivated, the home of the Phoenician people, 
who had, from very early times, close relations 
with »he Hebrews. They were the Britons of 
the ancient world, and from their great ports 
of Ty.e and Sidon their ships sailed to the dis- 
tant islands and coasts of the Mediterranean 
Sea. This was "the great sea" (Josh 1: 4), 
or "the utmost sea" (Deut. 34: 2). Palestine. 
—South of Syria, the Lebanons and Phoenicia, 
was Palestine, lying between the Arabian wil- 
derness and the Mediterranean Sea. Tho coast 
plain to the south-west was occupied by the 
Philistines; the mountainous region to the 
south of the Dead Sea, by the Edomites; Moab 
was immediately east of the Dead Sea; Amman, 
farther east and north. The pasture lands of 
the wilderness south of Palestine were occupied 
by various tribes of Semitic race, some of whom 
united with the Israelites. Egypt. — Egypt, like 
Babylonia, owed its fertility to a great river, 
the Nile, tower Egypt was formed by the 
broad, marshy lands of the delta. Upper Egypt 
was the narrow strip extending back to the 
desert on either side of the river, and sub- 
ject to its annual overflow. Like Babylonia, 
its monuments reveal a history reaching back 
four or five thousand years before Christ. 
Ethiopia. — Far tc the south was Ethiopia, whose 
princes ruled Egypt and sent ambassadors' to 
Palestine In the days of Isaiah (Isa. ch. 18). 

The Semites.— With the exception of Egypt, 
all the lands named were occupied in Old Tes- 
tament times by the so-called Semitic, or Shem- 



PALmnra. 



11 



Itlc natloni, that ii, nation* resarded aa de- 
•k-endbjta of Sbem. The»e may he claMined aa 
lOllowB: 



Babylonia.n Oroup. 
Old Babylonian* 
Aaayiiani 
Chaldeana 

AllAMEAN GROI'F. 

Heaopotamlanr 
Syrlanf 



Caxaa.mte Ok.jp. 
Canaan! tM 

Phcenlclans 

Mkiihkw Obovp. 
Hebmn 
MoabltM 
Ammonite! 
Bdomltaa 



In addition to the above named peoples, tbe 
Arabians and Ethiopians (In Abyssinia) are to 
be classed among the Semites. 

Questions. 

1. What was the extent of tbe world as 
know'i to tbe ancient Hebrews? 

2. Describe, In a general way, the physical 
features of Babylonia, Assyria and Mesopo- 
tamia. 

3. Where are the Lebanon mountains and tbe 
valley of Lebanon? 

4. Descrltie the country and people of Phoe- 
nicia. 

6. What countries named In the Bible "pos- 
sessed the oldest clTilization? 
6. Name and classify the Semitic nations. 



LESSON IV. 

PALESTINE. 

Extent.— The land of Palestine, which has 
given so much to the world, was very small as 
compared with other neighboring lands. It was 
not more than one hundred and fifty miles from 
north to south, and Its greatest width about one 
hundred miles. Tbe Jordan river divides the 
country Into Eastern and Western Palestine 
The area of the Eastern division is estimated at 



18 



OLD TKSTAHKNT. 



»,800 square miles, the Western >t 6,040 square 
miles; a total of nearly 10,000 square miles, or 
about one-sixth the area of England. 

Boundaries. — Palestine was bounded on the 
north by Phoenicia, the Lebanon mountains and 
Syria; on the east by the Arabian desert; on 
the south by Moab, Bdoni and the deserts of 
Paran and Shur; en the west by the coast plains 
occupied by the Philistines In the south, by the 
Mediterranean Sea In the centre, and by 
Phoenicia In the northern part. 

The Empire. — The people of Israel, however, 
laid claim to a much larger territory. The pro- 
mise to Abraham (Gen. 16: IS) was the land 
" from the river of Egypt (a deep water-course 
south of Gaza) unto the great river, the river 
Euphrates." The empire over which David and 
Solomon ruled seemed for a time to realize this 
larger ambition (1 Kings 4: 21, 24; 2 Chron. 
9: 26). 

The Physical Features. — Palestine presents a 
great variety of surface and .if climate. Five 
distinct zones, extending north and south, may 
be marked: 

1. The coast plains, varying in width from 
twenty to thirty miles in the south, to :rom 
two to six . lies In the north. The southern 
part was occupied by Israel's troublesome neigh- 
bors, the Philistines; the northern part by the 
Phffiniclans. The central part, south of Mount 
Carmel, was the plain of Sharon, rich pasture 
lands (Isa. 65: 10; 1 Chron. 27: 29). The coast 
is unbroken by bays and practically without 
harliors, Joppa, where Solomon's timber "flotes" 
(2 Chron. 2: 16) were landed, appears to have 
been the only seaport in Old Testament times. 

2. The foothills, or lowland, from opposite 
Joppa southward, separate the coast plain from 
the central mountain range. These are from five 
to fifteen miles wide. Lying between Judah and 
Phillstia, they were the scene of many a con- 
flict, from the days of Samson and David to the 
Maccabees and the Crusaders. 

3. The central plateau, or mountain range, 
was the chief dwelling place of the Israelites. 
They were a people of the hills (1 Kings 20: 
23). South of the Lebanon mountains and Her- 



PAUtSTlNE. 



13 



mon are the broken htll« of Oalllee, well wat- 
ered, picturesque and fertile. South of Oalllee 
the central plateau In Interrupted by the valley 
fL^'^ll'^S,"^?! ''*"** °' MsKlddo. extending 
rt,tT„.!. 1 "fu "®!'™"*^'' •" 'he Jordan, it Is 
f„ni^? n*'K"" J'^*"" .'^'''""'- celebrated In the 
eong of Deborah (Judges .",: 21). Sout. .,; the 

Pnhr^.™"" L'"' '*!:'"* """ POK-IOUS hills of 

Ephralm, or Samaria; then, In marked contrast 
the comparatively barren, limestone rldgeji ot 
dVi/it^' 8"''"?"' 'lescend Into the «rmthern 
wilderness. Th. .uountalns of the central range 
■■'? f™"" 2.50" "> ^.OOO feet above the sea 

4. The Jordan vaUry, or Ara!)ah. extends from 
t..e sources of the river, at the base of Mount 
Hermon to the Dead Sea. The entire length, to 
the southern limit of the Dead Sea bailn |g 
?«^«M? l?','^''- J"" «••«'"" P"t <" ;he dis' 
ae» » M''<.^"^ ";^'7.?' °' '"« Mediterranean 
Sea, at the Lake of Oalllee 682 feet, and at the 
Dead Sea 1,300 feet below sea level. The lake 

" sT;?'n?f ""^' 'J f.""«^ "> the Old Testament 
Sea of Chlnnereth (Num. 34: 11 ), or " Chin- 

?h« -1 .y"*".-. ^?A ^'- The Dead Sea is called 
the salt sea" (Gen. 14: 3) and the "sea of 
the plain" (Deut. 3: 17). <«»• ui 

5. Tft<? eastern plateau, or mountain range 
rises from 2.000 to 4,000 feet above sea level ana 
has both arable and pasture lands. Its central 
portion Is Gllead, Its northern portion Bashan 
hJ^ „ n'- '"J^ '*°^ "' ""'Sh mountains and 
deep valleys, of seacoast and fertile plain and 
tITuI^J^'"'^- P-'Tfents some strange contrasts. 
The snowy summits of Hermon look down upon 
the perpetual summer of the .lordan valley 

,f °/ '""ees overshadow the palms," and "the 
t^^ }^^ °°''"' •contends with the leopard of 
the south over the carcass of the gazelle of 
nT.l.hf?"?^"*** ""i^" Seed-sowing begins In 
October the growing crops are nourished by 

It InToluly"- ""' "'"''' '' ^"*'"^'' '° "^ 
th5*JI.*J?' Position.— The great high roads of 
the ancient world, from Egypt north and ea9t 
^l^ff . ^K?."^^ Palestine. They followed the 
coast to Mt. Carmel, thence to the Phmnlclan 
cltlee, or east and north through the valley of 



14 



OLD nSTAlUNT. 



E!«drmelon and OkUIm to DunMOiu. But wbile 
the north of Paleitlns wai thai open to the 
world's trafflc, Judah, ihut In by her mountain!, 
was comparatively leparate and ucluded. Here 
was developed a strong national lite and that 
high religious faith which has blessed the world. 

Questions. 

1. Olve the size and boundaries of Palestine. 

2. What was the extent of the empire of David 
and Solomon? 

3. Into what Ave tones jiay Palestine 
ilTlded? 

4. Describe carefully the central plateau of 
'estem Palestine. 

5 Where war the valley of Esdraelon? Tht 
Dead Sea7 

6. What peculiarities of climate mark Pales- 
tine? 



LB8S0N V. 

THE HI8T0BY: EABLII8T TIMES AND AGE OF 
ABBAHAM. 

Beginnings. — The Old Testament story begins 
with the creation of all things, and tells how 
Ood made the world and man. The first home 
of the human race was "a garden eastward In 
Eden.' Two of the rivers which are said to 
have watered the gprden can be Identified with 
the Tigris and Euphrates, and Eden was prob- 
ably somewhere In the Babylonian plain Here, 
In Old Testam'?nt times, there was a large Mipu- 
1 tlon and a high degree of -Ivlllzatlon. \ uere 
were many great cities, of wiilch Babylon was 
the chl>f. The land was rendered fertile and 
productive by an extensive system of Irrigation 
aided by the annual overflow of the two rivers. 
Recent discoveries of inscribed stone monu- 
ments and written tablets of baked clay. In tje 
ruins of ancient palaces and temples, s>ow that 
this country was Inhabited four thousand years 
and more before the time of Christ. 

Before the Flood. — There follow.^ the ^ \i and 
tragic story of " man's first disobedience, and 
the fruit of that forbidden tree, whose mortal 



BABUBST TIMES AND AOE OF ABBAUAM. 18 

Uite brought death Into the vrorld and all our 
woe. Briefly the gtory la told of the genera- 
tlons iMfore the flood, and of that groes eorrup- 
tlon of the earth which preceded the great 
dliaater. 

The Flood.— Then came the flood of wateri 
which deetroyed all flesh. It U Interesting to 
know that upon clay tablets discovered In the 
ruins of an Assyrian palace we have a B '<y- 
Ionian account of the deluge, closely simlla to 
that In Genesis. It Is, perhaps, best explained 
as the record of a great nood which over- 
whelmed the people of the Babylonian plain and 
adjacent regions, indeed the world, as known 
to the men of that time, was little more than 
their own country and Its closely-bordering 
lands. The Hebrew historian saw In this, as In 
the overthrow of Sodom, the execution of divine 
Judgment upon a sinful people. Noah only, with 
his family, was saved In the ark. 
.. ^^,* 3°"* °' Noah.— The nations known to 
tu. Hebrews were reckoned as descendants from 
the sons of Noah. Particular attention is given 
by the historian to the descendants of Shem 
among whom were the ancestors of the Hebrews. 
With the "generations of Terah " (Oen. II' 27) 
the story of the Hebrew patriarchs begins. 

The Patriarchs.— The family to which Abram 
belonged had their home at first In " Ur of the 
Chaldoes," a city on the river Euphrates, In 
southern Babylonia. Thence they moved north- 
ward to Haran, In Mesoiiotamla, where they con- 
tinued to reside. Hence, perhaps, they are 
called Arameans (Deut. 26: 5 Rev. Ver. margin) 
They are said to have "served other 
gods" (Josh. 24: 2), but to Abram there 
came some knowledge of the true God 
and In obedience to a divine call, he left 
hli kindred and went westward and south- 
ward to the land of Canaan. With him went 
Lot, hl3 nephew, who settled In the plain of 
Jordan. Abram went south to Hebron, and then 
to Qerar, where Isaac also dwelt after him. 
Jacob, Isaac's younger son, after long residence 
with his kinsfolk in Mesopotamia, returned to 
Palestine, and lived near Shechem, then moved 
south aa far aa Beerslieba, wheQc«, forc«4 by 



16 



OLD TESTAMENT. 



famine, he went with his sons to Egypt. There, 
In the providence of God, his son Joseph, sold 
Into slavery In his youth by jealous brothers, 
had become chief ruler of the land next to the 
king, and was able to give them a home It 
Goshen, In the north-eastern part of the country. 
The Hebrew Races. — Ishmael, son of Abram 
and Hagar, and other sons of Abram (Gen. 25) 
are reputed ancestors of the Arabian tribes of 
the country south and east of Palestine. Prom 
Lot, Abram's nephew, sprang the Moabltes and 
Ammonites, east of Jordan and the Dead Sea. 
Prom Esau, elder son of Isaac, sprang the 
Edomltes In Seir, farther south. Israel only, 
whose tribes claimed descent from the sons of 
Jacob, of all the Hebrew races attained a great 
place i'l the world's history. 

Chronology.— The remarkable discovery, a 
few years ago, of records and laws of a king of 
Babylon, who reigned about 2250 B.C., may help 
us to determine the age of Abram. The name 
of this king Is Hammurabi, and he may be Iden- 
tical with Amraphel, king of Shinar (that Is of 
Babylon, Gen. 11: 2; 9; 14: 1). The date of 
Abram's migration to Canaan was formerly 
reckoned to be 1921 B.C. It Is impossible, how- 
ever, to fix the dates of this early period accur- 
ately, with our present knowledge. There are 
gaps In the history which the Biblical record 
does not attempt to fill. 

„„5''?""^*»?I*;~;^°™® "' "^^ ™°st picturesque 
and beautiful Incidents and characters of the 
Bible story meet us in Genesis— the magnani- 
mous Abram, or Abraham, the man of great 
faith the peace-loving Isaac, the shrewd and 

Z«„i°"\ i^'^h }-^^ P"''« ^""l h'eh-mlnded 
Joseph. A faithful and instructive picture is 
presented of the lite of that remote age. 

Questions. 

hnl:,J^'JT^ 1?*^ *^ ^"^'^ P'a™ the earliest 
home of the human race? 

2. priefly tell the story of Abraham. 

d How was the way prepared for Israel's 

migration to Egypt? 



AGE OP MOSES AND THE CONQUEST. 17 

4. Name the Hebrew races, and show what 
countries they occupied. 

5. What recent discovery appears to fix the 
age of Abraham? 

6. Describe some of the notable characters of 
Genesis. 



LEGSON VI. 

AQE OF MOSES AND THE CONQUEST. 

Early History of Egypt.— The migration of 
the Israelites to Egypt toolt place, probably, 
while Egypt was ruled by the Hyksos, or Shep- 
herd Kings, who are supposed to have been 
themselves Semites, and so not unfavorable to 
Semitic immigrants such as Jacob and his sons. 
Egypt was then populous and wealthy, with a 
history going back two thousand years and 
more. The great pyramids which look down 
upon the Nile had been built a thousand years 
before. The Hyksos were expelled in the 16th 
century B.C., and under following kings the 
Israelites suffered oppression. It is now com- 
monly believed that Rameses II., in the 13th 
century B.C., was the Pharaoh whose cruel 
acts are recorded in the first chapter of Exodus, 
and that Merenptah, his son and successor, was 
the Pharaoh whose refusal to let Israel go 
brought the plagues upon himself and his 
people. 

Moses. — In the providence of God a great 
deliverer was raised up for Israel. Moses, son 
of Hebrew parents, but educated at the court 
of the king, after long exile in the Midlanite 
desert, was called of God to be the leader of 
his people. To him was revealed the new name, 
Jehovah (Ex. 6: 2-3), by which the God of Israel 
was henceforth called. Jehovah was with 
Moses, and manifested His power In Egypt, so 
that the resistance of Pharaoh was overcome. 
The day of the departure from Egypt was 
afterward commemorated in the feast of the 
Passover. 

The Exodus.— The Israelites proceeded east- 
ward into the wilderness, crossing an arm of 
the Red Sea, where the Egyptians, attempting 
to follow, were overwhelmed in the rising 



18 



OLD TESTAUENT. 



waters. This wonderful deliverance convinced 
them o( the power of their God, and became a 
type and assurance of deliverance from other 
perils in later years (Ps. 18: 16-17; Isa. 43: 
16-17). At Slnal they encamped for a time, 
and a government was organized (Ex., ch. 18), 
and laws formulated (Ex., chs. 19^23). Here 
the newly ■ organized nation entered into 
covenant with Jehovah, promising obedience 
to His law (Ex. 24: 3-8; 34: 10), and conse- 
crated a priesthood and tabernacle, or tent 
temple, to His worship. 

The Wilderness. — Proceeding northward from 
Sinai, they made an Ineffectual attempt to 
Invade Palestine from the south. There fol- 
lowed a long period of sojuum In the wilder- 
ness, chiefly at Kadesh Barnea; then they 
moved eastward, going round about Edom, and 
northward to the plains of Moab. Here Moses 
died, " but no man knoweth of his sepulchre 
unto this day." 

Character of Moses. — Moses was great In his 
simplicity, self-sacrifice and patience. He was 
great as a statesman and as a leader of the 
people. He was greatest in his unswerving 
loyalty to the God of his fathers (Heb. 11: 
24-27), and in laying the foundations of Israel's 
national life broad and deep in obedience to the 
laws of Ood. 

Early People of Palestine.— When Israel 
came fo Palestine they found it occupied by 
other races. The Amorltes, tall and strong, 
(Amos 2: 9), dwelt in the mountains In walled 
cities (Deut. 1: 20, 27, 28), the Amalekites in 
the south, the Canaanltes and Philistines In 
the seacoast and Jordan valley (Num. 13: 29; 
Ex. 13: 17). Other tribes are mentioned (Deut. 
7: 1), with whom Israel was destined to wage 
a long conflict, and some of whom ultimately 
became subject to the Israelites and coalesced 
with them. The Egyptians had, at an earlier 
time, ruled over Palestine, but had withdrawn 
from it. 

The Conquest— Before the death of Moses, 
the Amorltes of Eastern Palestine were sab- 
4ued (Num. ch. 21). Joshua now led the people 



AOB OF MOSES AND THE CONQUEST. 19 

across Jordan, making his first permanent en- 
campment at Gllgal, in tlie Jordan plain. First, 
Jericho and the cities of central Palestine fell 
into his hands. Then the war was carried 
south and north, until a foothold had been 
gained In every part of the land. Joshua 
proved a brave and capable leader, loyal to the 
worship of Jehovah and the ideals of his great 
predecessor. 

The Judges. — Much of the country, however, 
remained unsubdued (Judges, chs. 1-3), and the 
Israelites were called upon, again and again, 
to resist their enemies within, and invaders 
from without the land. As yet there was no 
king, and unite" action on the part of all the 
tribes was dlfflcuit or impossible. So the people 
of the north, or the centre, or south, or east of 
Jordan rallied from time to time in the name of 
Jeh ih, and under a strong leader, against 
the. enemies. Such deliverers were Deborah 
and Barak, Gideon and Jephthah. The Song 
of Deborah commemorates the victory at 
Meglddo over the northern Canaanites. A 
kingdom was established at Shechem by a son 
of Gideon, but soon ended disastrously. By con- 
stant strife the people learned the importance 
of united effort, and developed that heroic cour- 
age and zeal for Jehovah so marked in Deborah 
and Gideon, In Saul and David. Towards the 
end of the period of the Judges, the Philistines 
were persistent aggressors, and subjected a 
large part of the land to tribute. It was against 
them that Samson performed his notable ex 
plolts on the borders of Judah! 

Questions. 

1. About what time did the Exodus probably 
take place? 

2. Tell, briefly, the story of the early life of 
Moses. 

3. What great events occurred at Sinai? 

4. Describe the character and work of Moses. 

5. What races occupied Palestine before the 
conquest? 

6. Name some of the great judges of Israel, 
and show what they accomplished in national 
and religious lite. 



80 



OLD TESTAMENT. 



LESSON VII. 

AGE OP DAVID AND SOI.OMn.N. v 

Samuel.— Joshua had established the national 
sanctuary and set up the tabernacle at Shlloh 
north of Bethel (Josh. 18: 1; Judges 21: 19)' 
Here descendants of Aaron continued to hold 
the priesthood In the days of the Judges 
Samuel, consecrated to God from his birth as 
a Nazlrlte (Num., ch. 6, Rev. Ver.), was here 
the servant and pupil of the old priest EH 
who was both priest and Judge of Israel. While 
still a child he heard the divine voice and was 
called to be a prophet of God. His Influence 
extended throughout all Israel and he was judge 
after Ell, going " from year to year In circuit to 
Bethel and Ollgal and Mlzpeh." 

The Philistines.— At this time the Philistines 
sorely opressed Israel and even destroyed the 
sanctuary at Shlloh, carrying away the sacred 
ark. The spirit of the people was broken. 
They said, " The glory Is departed from Israel " 
Now Samuel urged the putting away of all 
Idolatry and that they should serve Jehovah 
only, promising that Jehovah would deliver 
them. He called a national assembly for prayer 
and sacrifice, and when the Philistines attacked 
them, Israel was victorious. 

The Monarchy. — Through the period of the 
Judges, and especially under the administration 
of Samuel, the princes of Israel were learning 
the weakness of separation and disunion. They 
now came to Samuel, asking him to give them 
a king. Reluctantly Samuel yielded to their 
request, but warned them of the evils which 
they might suffer from an arbitrary and tyran- 
nical ruler, and endeavored to safeguard the 
liberties of the people (1 Sam. 8; 10: 25). 

Schools of the Prophets. — A striking teaiure 
of that age was the assembling of companies of 
young men, full of patriotic and religious en- 
thusiasm, usually under the leadership of a 
prophet whom they called "father" (1 Sam 
10: 5-12; 19; 20), while they were called "sons 
of the prophets" (2 Kings 2: 3, 5- 4: 1, 38). 
These so-called " schools of the prophets " con- 



AGE OP DAVID AND SOLOMON. 



81 



tlnued for some hundreds of years, and exer- 
cised a great influence upon the religious life 
of the people. Samuel has been regarded by 
some as their founder. He. at least, took a 
great Interest In them. 

Saul.— Saul, of the tribe of Benjamin, was the 
flrst king of Israel. By his notable relief of 
Jabesh Oilead (1 Sam., ch. 11) he asserted his 
right to this high office. He was a brave sol- 
dier, and during the greater part of his reign 
was engaged In war with the Philistines. His 
last years were darkened by his foolish rejec- 
tion of the advice of Samuel (1 Sam., ch. 15) 
and his jealousy of the rising fame of David. 

David (about 1010-970 B.C.).— David, son of 
Je- \ of Bethlehem, of the tribe of Judah, was 
at first king over Judah in Hebron, while Ish- 
boEheth, a son of Saul, ruled over the northern 
tribes. Seven years later David succeeded to 
the entire kingdom and removed his capital 
from Hebron to thj city of Jerusalem, which 
he won from the .Tebusites and rebuilt. It was 
henceforth called the city of David. David was 
a great and successful soldier. He subdued the 
Philistines, and extended the power of his king- 
dom over Moab, Ammon and Edom, and north- 
ward over Syria to the Euphrates river, sub- 
jecting these lands to tribute. He endeavored 
to rule his people with impartiality and justice, 
and to heal the breach which had for a time 
existed between Judah and the northern tribes 
Men of later centuries looked back to David as 
the ideal king. He sought to honor God by 
establishing the sanctuary at Jerusalem, and he 
received the counsel of the prophets as the 
word of God. He was a poet, as well as a war- 
rior and a statesman. He composed a dirge upon 
the death of Saul and Jonathan, and many of 
the Psalms are attributed to him. The charac- 
ter of David is stained with some of the vices 
of his age, lust and cruelty, and his later years 
were darkened by the rebellion of his favorite 
son, Absalom, His virtues, however, greatly 
outshine his defects, and his reign was the 
most glorious in Israel's history. 
Solomon (about 97 B.C.).- Solomon,' 



ss 



OLD TBSTAUBKT. 



David's son, succeeded to great power and 
wealth. Wise us a judge of hla people, he 
proved weak as a statesman and ruler. Like 
David he maintained an alliance with the king 
of Tyre, and he also allied himself by marriage 
with the king of Egypt. But he lost much of 
the territory gained by David, and the heavy 
burden of taxation and forced labor, which the 
expenses ot his magnificent court and his great 
building operations laid upon the peop!", caused 
much discontent. The favor, also, which he 
showed to some of his foreign wives, in building 
altars and temples to their gods, provoked the 
disapproval of the prophets. Solomon's great 
work was the building of the temple in Jeru- 
salem, which occupied seven years. This temple 
was intended for the whole nation, and to give 
dignity and unity to their worship. Here the 
Aaronic priesthood maintained the worship of 
Jehovah for 350 years. Like David, Solomon 
was a poet, and was, moreover, famed for his 
learning and wisdom. Much of the book of 
Proverbs is attributed to his authorship, and 
also the '^ong of Solomon. 

QlIISTIONS. 

1. Tell, briefly, the story of Samuel's life and 
work. 

2. Who were Israel's greatest foes in the time 
of Samuel, and where did they live? Who 
finally subdued them? 

3. What were the events which led to the 
founding of the monarchy? 

4. Describe the " schools ot the prophets." 

5. What were the principal events of David's 
reign? Of Solomon's? 

6. What was Solomon's most important work? 



LESSON VIII. 

THE ASSTBIAN AQK. 

The Disruption. — Solomon's long reign left 
the people sorely discontented. By forced labor 
in the building of the temple, palaces and for- 
tifications (1 Kings 9: 16), and by taxing the 



THE AS8TBIAK ASK. 



S8 



people for the expenses of his court (1 Kings 
ch. 4), he made their "yoke grievous." The 
old feud between Judah and the northern tribes 
still slumbered, and the rash conduct of Reho- 
boam, Solomon's son and successor, fanned It 
Into a flame. Jeroboam, a former servant of 
Saul, became the leader of the sedition, and was 
chosen king of the northern tribes, Judah only 
remaining faithful to the grandson of David. 

Israel and Judah. — The northern kingdom, 
now called Israel, continued for more than two 
hundred years. It was much larger, more 
populous and wealthy than • the kingdom of 
Judah, but Judah was better organized and con- 
tinued to have a more stable government. 
There was war at first between them, but dur- 
ing the greater part of their parallel history the 
two kingdoms maintained peaceful relations. 
Descendants of the royal line of David con- 
tinued to rule in Judah till the beginning of the 
sixth centu.-y. The throne of Israel was less 
secure, and was contested or usurped from time 
to time by ambitious soldiers. 

Israel in the gth Century.— About -886 B.C. 
Omri succeeded to the throne of Israel and 
made Samaria his capital. He made peace with 
Judah and alliance with Tyre, and strengthened 
the borders of hiis kingdom against the Syrians. 
His conquest of Moab is recorded on " the Moab- 
Ite stone," a remarkable historical monument 
found In that country in 1868. His son Ahab 
(875 B.C.), by his marriage with Jezebel of 
Tyre, introduced the corrupt worship of Baal 
and Astarte into Israel, arousing the alarm and 
opposition of the prophets of Jehovah. 

Elijah and Blwho.— Elijah, of Gilead, became 
the champion of Jehovah against Baal and 
forced the conflict to a crisis, but for a time the 
queen prevailed. In subsequent years Elisha, 
the servant and pupil of Elijah, continued his 
work, and Baal worship was largely, though not 
entirely, destroyed. 

The Syrian Wors.— During the reign of Sol- 
omon a strong kingdom was founded at Damas- 
cus (1 Kings 11: 23-26), which made itself the 
persistent enemy of Israel. Its people were 



84 



OLD TESTAMENT. 



Arameans, in later tlmas called Syrians. In- 
duced by Asa, king of Judah, about the begin- 
ning of the ninth century, they Invaded Israel 
and seized some of the northern provinces (1 
Kings 15: 18-20). The war continued Intermit- 
tently for more than a hundred years. In the 
reign of Ahab Israel was victorious, and for a 
brief space there was peace (1 Kings 22: 1). It 
was probably at that time (854 B.C.) that the 
armies of Israel and Syria fought side by side 
against a new Invader from the east, the 
Assyrian king Shalmaneser II., as recorded In 
an Inscription of his reign. From this time 
onward, for more than three hundred years, 
Assyrian and Babylonian records throw light 
upon the Biblical history, bear testimony to its 
truth, and help us to fix more accurately the 
dates of important events. 

Dynasty of Jehu. — The house of Omrl was 
overthrown about 842 CO., by a revolt of the 
army under Jehu, who was now made king. 
He sought the aid of the Assyrians against 
Damascus, but it availed him little. Under his 
successors, the Syrians held Israel under tribute 
until, in the early part of the 8th century, Syria 
had to summon all her forces to resist the grow- 
ing power of the Assyrian empire. 

Judah in the gth Century. — Judah was for a 
time fortunate under the rule of good kings. 
Asa (912 B.C.), grandson of Rehoboam, made 
peace with Israel, and Jebosbaphat (872 B.C.), 
his son, was the active ally of Ahab against 
Damascus (1 Kings, ch. 22), and his son, 
Jehoram, married Ahab's daughter, Athallah. 
Athaliah. like her mother, Jezebel, brought the 
worship of Baal with her to Jerusalem, and 
even, for a short time, usurped the throne. 
The priests of Jehovah arose against her, re- 
stored to the throne a prince of the Davldic line, 
and destroyed the temple of Baal (837 B.C.) 
In the latter part of the century Judah, like 
Israel, suffered from invasion by the Syrians. 

Judah and Israel in the 8th Century. — The 
first half of the 8th century was a period of 
prosperity for both kingdoms. Under the long 
reigns of Uzzlah (790 B.C.) in Judah, and Jero- 



THE ASSYRIAN AOE. 



85 



boam II. (784 B.C.) in Israel, their |)ower and 
wealth rivaled the days of Solomon. DamaBCUB 
was hard pressed by Assyria and was no longer 
an enemy to be feared. 

The AiB3rrian Empire. — In the second half of 
the century all was changed. The Assyrian 
power, from Its capital city of Nineveh, on the 
Tigris, made rapid i)rogress westward, until the 
whole of Mesopotamia, Syria, Phoenicia and Pal- 
estine became subject to tribute. Resistance to 
this cruel conqueror led only to heavier tribute, 
and ultimately to the destruction of the con- 
quered cities and deportation of the people to 
another part of the empire. Damascus fell. Its 
kingdom came to an end, and Its people were 
deported In 732 B.C. Israel fell upon evil days 
after the death of Jerol)oam II. Anarchy and 
civil war prevailed, and one party Invoked the 
aid of Assyria against the other (2 Kings 15: 
19). The Assyrians invaded the country in B.C. 
734, carrying away many captives (2 Kings 15: 
29). The final catastrophe came in 722, when the 
city of Samaria fell, after a resistance of three 
years, and many of the people of Israel were 
deported to Assyria. The kingdom of Israel 
had come to a disastrous end. Judah, too, be- 
came subject to Assyria in the reign of Ahaz, 
and continued to pay tribute for many years. 
In 705 B.C., when the news came of the death 
of the powerful king Sargon, all the western 
countries broke out Into revolt. Judah shared 
in this rebellion, Influenced by promises of help 
from Egypt, and, as a result, received terrible 
punishment. The army of Sennacherib laid 
waste the whole country, carried off multitudes 
of captives and vast spoil, and threatened Jeru- 
salem with destruction, in the reign of Heze- 
klah, 701 B.C. 

The Prophets. — Contemporary with the exten- 
sion of the Assyrian empire over Palestine and 
the neighboring countries, we have the first 
great books of prophecy. Amos, about the 
middle of the century, and Ilosea, a little later, 
bore their messages to the northern kingdom. 
Isaiah, beginning about 740, and Micah were 
prophets of Judah. They were deeply concerned 



«6 OLD TB8TAHENT. 

wltb the moral corruption which prevailed 
among all clasaes, and they saw, In the Aaajrriao 
empire, Ood'i instrument of chaitlMment. But 
beyond the darkness of invasion and captivity 
they saw and predicted the dawn of a brighter 
day, a recovered dominion, a regenerated 
society, and the extension of the knowledge of 
Jehovah to other nations. 

Questions. 

1. What were the chief causes of the disrup- 
tion? 

2. Compare the kingdoms of Is<-ael and Judah 
in size, population, wealth and political import- 
ance. Which kingdom preserved the most 
stable government and the purest religion? 

3. What were the important events of the 
reigns of Omrl and Aliab? 

4. What great service did Elijah and Blisha 
render to the cause of true religion? 

5. When did the Assyrian empire subjugate 
Palestine, and when and how did the kingdoms 
of Syria and Israel come to an end? 

6. What was the great message of the pro- 
phets of this age? 



LESSON IX. 

THI BABYLOniAIT AND PERSIAN AGES. 

The Seventh Century. — Judah continued to 
be subject to Assyria through the greater part 
of the seventh century. Oross idolatry and 
moral declension marked the long reign of 
Manasseh (690-641 B.C.) and that of his son 
Amon (641-639 B.C.). It appeared as though 
the lessons Impressed by the great prophets had 
been forgotten; but the leaven was working 
deep In the hearts of the people. With the up- 
risintr against the corrupt court and the mur- 
derers of Amon, and the accession of Joslah 
(639 B.C.), a new era began. Reforms were 
Instituted and the temrle cleansed and re- 
paired. The work of rcii,. nation was greatly 
aided by the finding in the temple (621 B.C.) 
of a book of law, believed now to have been 



THK BABYU>NIAN AND FEBBIAN A0E8. 27 

Deuteronomy. To Iti precepts and admonltiont 
king and people gave heed. The altari, where 
idolatrous customs had long prevailed, both in 
Jerusalem nnd throughout the country, were 
destroyed, and their priests provided for In con- 
nection with the temple In Jerusalem. Solemnly 
the anclenL covenant was renewed and the Pass- 
over was celebrated with renewed zeal (2 Kings, 
ch. 28). 

Decline of Aisyria.— The Assyrian Empire 
had reached the zenith of its power In the early 
part of this century, but was now declining to 
Its fall. Barbarians from the north. Medes 
from the east, and Babylonians in the south 
ocinbined for its destruction. The great city 
of Nineveh fell in 607 B.C., and was never re- 
built. Excavations of the last century have 
revealec: something of the macniflcenre of its 
temples and palaces. 

Egypt and Babylon. — Taking advantage of 
the weakness of Assyria, Necho. king of Egypt, 
in 608 B.C. marched northward, Intending to 
take possession of Palestine and Syria. Joslah 
met him in battle at Megiddo, but was defeated 
and slain. Judah passed for a few years under 
Egyptian rule. Necho met the Babylonian 
army under Nebuchadnezzar at the Euphrates 
in B.C. 604. and was defeated (Jer., ch. 46), and 
the dominion over Syria and Palestine passed 
to the Babylonians. 

Fall of Jerusalem. — ^The Jews did not re- 
main in peaceful subjection to Babylon. After 
a first rebellion, their country was Invaded In 
597 B.C., Jerusalem was taken, and many of the 
best of the people carried Into captivity. Again 
they rebelled, and In B.C. 586 the city and temple 
were destroyed, and all but some vlne-dressers 
and farmers carried to Babylon. Even this poor 
remnant did not escape further calamities, and 
they, shortly after, migrated to Egypt. 

The Prophets.— The most notable figure in 
this period of disaster Is Jeremiah, the great 
prophet, who began his work about B.C. 626, 
and continued till he went with the last sur- 
vivors to Egypt. Nahum, who predicted the 



OLD TBBTAUENT. 



fall Of Nineveh. ZephMlah, Hsbakkuk, aad, 
probably, Obadtah were his contemporarlM. 
Bzeklel began hia work In exile about B.C. 69S, 
and continued for twenty or more years. Like 
the prophets of the Assyrian period, they now 
saw In Dabylon Jehovah's Instrument of pun- 
iKhnient. and in the exile a necessary discipline. 
They confidently predicted a restoration, and 
the dawn of a new day of righteousness and 
prosperity. 

The Exile. — Tfee exiles remained In Babylon 
for flfty years. Many engaged In business, or 
were skilled craftsmen or farmers. Many, no 
doubt, were tempted by the luxury ant* wealth 
of Babylcn. and forgot the faith of their 
fathers: but there were some who remained 
falthtul. Carefully and jealously they pre- 
served the records and laws of the past, and the 
first Kreat series of historical books, Oenesis 
to Kings was, apparently, now brought to com- 
pletion. Isaiah, cha. 40-66, contains messages 
of comfort and encouragement addressed to the 
exiles, with assurances of coming deliverance 
and future national glory under the restored 
favor and blessing of Jehovah. 

Restoration. — Through the overthrow of 
Babylon by Cyrus, the Persian King, In 639 
B.C., the way was opened fbr the return of the 
exiles to their own land. The policy of Cyrus 
was to conciliate subject peoples, and attach 
them to his government. A large number of 
the Jews, under the leadership of Sheshbazzar 
(or Zerubbabel), a prince of the ancient royal 
line, relumed to Judah in B.C. 538. They met 
with much opposition from the Samaritans and 
other neighbors, and made but slow progress. 
It was twenty years before, urged by their 
jirophets Haggai and Zechariah, they rebuilt 
the temple. They continued subject to the 
Persian empire, and the kingdom of David was 
not re-established. 

Ezra and Nehemiah. — In the two genera- 
tions following the return from exile, there wa« 
again moral and religious decline. Mingling 
with and intermarrying with their heathen 



THK BABTLOKIAN AND PEB8IAN AORB. 29 

netgbbori led to corruption of manners and 
grou careleranen and Ignorance In ihetr re- 
IlCtoui duties. Bzrii, the scribe (4S8 B.C.). 
and Nehemlah. the governor (444 B.C.), came 
from the Jewish communities In Babylon and 
Persia as zealous agents of reform. The law 
was taught to the people and enforced ui>on all. 
The wall« of .leruHaleni were rebuilt, und the 
people were animated by renewed zeal and 
devotion. 

Concluaion.— The long course of discipline 
through which Israel had passed was bearing 
fruit. The books of the law and of prophecy 
were exalted to a high place of esteem and 
reverence. They were read and copied by the 
scribes and taught to the people. Wherever 
Jewish communities existed. In Egypt, Pales- 
tine, Syria or Babylonia, the synagogue was 
established for reading the Scriptures, for study 
and for prayer. A great devotional literature 
arose, and wise counsellors instilled high moral 
precepts In the minds of the young. Hymns of 
praise and prayer were sung in the temple and 
the synagogues. The hopes and predictions of 
the prophetic age were cherished and more 
siplrltually Interpreted. While many continued 
to be corrupt and worldly, a real piety was 
fostered among the people, and they were pre- 
pared, and. In a measure, by their dispersion 
among the nations, were preparing the world, 
for a better age (Heb. 11: 40). 



QUEBTIOKB. 

1. Tell the story of the great reformation of 
religion in the reign of Josiah. 

2. When and how did the Assyrian Bmpire 
fall? Who foretofd the fall of Nineveh? 

3. How long did the Babylonian Empire con- 
tinue? 

4. What do you Ttnow of the prophets ."ere- 
miab and Ezekiel? 

5. What great literary work was completed in 
Babylonian exile? 

6. Describe the age and work of Ezra. 



30 



OLD TEBTAUENT. 



LESSON X. 
INSTITUTIOIfS. 

The Sanctuary. — The primitive sanctuary was 
simply the altar of earth, or of rough, unhewn 
stone, upon which sacrifice was offered (Gen. 8; 
20; 12: 7-8; Ex. 20: 24-25). Such an altar stone 
was called by Jacob, Bethel, " God's house." In 
the wilderness the Israelites dedicated a large 
tent, or " tabernacle," to the worship of God. 
The tent was 45 feet long and 15 feet wide, and, 
like the shepherd's tent, had two apartments, an 
outer and an Inner. The outer apartment, 30 by 
15 feet, was the holy place, the Inner, 16 by 15 
feet, the holy of holies. In the holy place stood 
the altar of Incense, where daily sacrifice was 
offered, and in the holy of holies rested the ark 
of the covenant. This was a wooden chest over- 
laid with gold and containing the stone tablets 
of the commandments, or " the testimony " 
(Ex. 40: 20). The tabernacle was surrounded 
by a large court containing the altar of burnt 
offering. The temple of Solomon was built upon 
the same general plan as the tabernacle. The 
main building was 90 by 30 feet, with a porch In 
front 30 by 15 feet. It was destroyed by the 
Babylonians in 586 B.C., and rebuilt, after the 
restoration from exile. In 516 B.C. . 

The Priesthood. — In primitive times It would 
seem that any man had the right to approach 
his God with sacrifice and prayer ((Jen. 4:3 4- 
28:18). The head of the family was priest of 
his own household or might make one of his 
sons priest (Judges 17: 5). Moses set apart the 
Levltes, members of his own tribe, to be priests 
of the nation, making his brother Aaron and 
his sons chief priests. Their duties appear at 
first to have been threefold: (1) to minister at 
the altar, (2) to consult the oracle or cast the 
sacred lot (Ex. 28: 30; Num. 27: 21), and (3) 
to exercise Judgment (1 Sam. 4: 18; Deut. 17: 
9). The prophet Malachi speaks of them as 
teachers of the law (ch. 2: 4-7). In later times 
tholr ministry in the temple, in offering sacri- 
fice and conducting the worship of the people, 
became their chief duty. 



INSTITUTIONS. 



81 



Sacrifice.— Worship, In early times, took 
almost universally the form of sacrifice. Gifts 
of the flesh of animals, or the fruit of the fields, 
or of wine and oil, were brouph r.p the altar. 
The fat portions of the mi ', vs'iLh frswant 
gums or sweet cane, were burned, ana. the 
remainder was eaten by the ' ir: 'ilppcr ai d his 
household or invited friends. Various kli ds of 
sacrifice are described fully ii !«•, it; 'u!! (chs. 
1-9). 

The Sacred Year. — Three great annual feasts 
were observed. The feast of Passover, or 
unleavened bread. In the spring, corresponding 
to our Bastertlde, marked the beginning of har- 
vest and commemorated the departure from 
Egypt (Ex. chs. 12, 13). The feast of Pentecost, 
or of weeks, seven weeks later, marked the end 
of harvest. The feast of Tabernacles, In the fall, 
in September or October, after the Ingathering 
of the fruits, commemorated also the living In 
tents In the wilderness. Just before came the 
great fast, the day of atonement. The old eco- 
nomic year began in the fall, In September or 
October, but the sacred year was made to begin 
in the spring, in March or April. The first day 
of the old year is still celebrated as the Jewish 
New Year by the feast of Trumpets. In the 
early spring the feast of Purlm commemorated 
Queen Esther's deliverance of the Jews (Esth. 
9: 22-26). Every seventh day the Sabbath was 
observed as a day of rest. The New Moon day, 
or first day of each month (that is, lunar 
month) was also a holy day (Num. 10: 10; 
2 Kings 4: 23). 

Prophecy. — The prophet was the messenger 
or spokesman of the God of Israel. The patri- 
archs and Moses are called prophets, because of 
their Inspired utterances, but, strictly speaking, 
the great order of the prophets begins with 
Samuel. They sometimes gathered In companies 
or " schools," animated by religious enthusiasm. 
They became Instructors of the people and coun- 
sellors of the kings. They were writers of the 
early history, to which they gave a strong reli- 
gious coloring (1 Chron. 29: 29, etc.), and their 
books of prophetic discourse constitute a most 
significant part of the Old Testament scriptures. 



32 



OLD TESTAMENT. 



Theocracy— From early times the idea Pr^ 
vanedX't'jehovah was Israel.B k ng and the 
leader of her armies, " Jehovah of hosts tne 

Kf the armies of I"a«''' "^^'"^A"! h^ 
^cognized the divine I'l'JSship and held his 
kingdom as Jehovah's gift (2 Sam. 7. 18-29 . , 
Now Israel was called Jehovah's son, His 
^Zt-born" (Ex. 4: 22). Similarly the king 
as representative of the people, was spoken of 
as the son of God (2 Sam. 7: 14). When, By 
Jehovah's prophet, the anointing oil was poured 
unon his head, he became " the Lord's anointed 
a Sam 10: 1; 26: 11). This is the meaning 
of the Hebrew word " Messiah." When the pro^ 
phets looked into the future and foretold the 
coming of a great and perfect King, who should 
be the deliverer of His people, it was natural 
that this title should be given Him. „„^. „ 
The Messianic Hope.-The hope of a com ng 
King and Saviour finds Its first clear expression 
In the prophecy of Isaiah, in the dark days of 
Assyrian oppression (Isa. 7: 14; 9: l-( ; ID- it 
is echoed by Micah (ch. 5: 2-4) and repeated 
again and again by later prophets (Jer 30: 8-9, 
Ezek 34: 23, 24, etc.). The h.,pe continued to 
be cherished by devout souls even after the 
decline of prophecy, and is the theme of Psalms 
72 and 89. When, in the fulness of time, Jesus 
the Messiah came, there were still those who 
were "waiting for the consolation of Israel 
(Luke 2: 25). 

Questions. 

1. Describe the primitive form of sanctuary 
and compare with Solomon's temple. 

2. What were the priest's duties in earlier and 
later times? 

3. What were the common materials and 
forms of sacrifice? 

4. Name the three great feasts of the Jewish 

y6&r. 

5. What was the prophets' function, and what 
great religious and ethical work did they accom- 

Pl'fh? .. .^ ,„ 

6. What is meant by the term theocracy 7 



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